What is a Cyber Attack? | How to Prevent Cyber Attacks? | Cyber Attacks Examples

So as the tech grows there has been a massive spike in cyber-attacks and that's the reason all the companies want to increase their security.

What are cyber-attacks?

Basically, a cyber attack is done by cybercriminals, they can use one or more computers to hack the computer of any individual or hack all computers of a company.

A cyber attack can disable your computer, steal data from it, or they can hack only one computer in the company, and use it to hack into other computers.

A cyber attack can be executed from anywhere in the world using various attack strategies now let's look into those strategies - 

Types of cyber attacks 

So the types of attacks that hackers use are denial of service, malware attack, the man in the middle, phishing attack, password attack, SQL injection, and social engineering, etc.

1. Denial of Service

Denial of service is one of the most common techniques used to hack into web servers to put it simply DDoS attack is an attempt to flood the server and overwhelm the target, because of this the service will temporarily not be available or disrupted the actual traffic will not be able to use the service because of this.

In other words, the DDoS attack will send multiple requests to the attacked website's capacity to handle multiple requests and prevent the website from functioning correctly.

How do Hackers DDoS attacks?

Hacker uses botnet for these, botnet are controlled units that keep and flood it 

First, the attacker uses a control server to control all the botnets, usually, botnets are thousands in numbers these botnets then will keep sending messages to the target server at a certain point, and that's when a hacker has a chance to get into your computer.

2. Malware

Malware is malicious software designed to exploit an electronic device, service or, network. Cybercriminals typically use it to extract data that they can leverage over victims for financial gain.

Types of malware 

  • Viruses - A computer virus is like a flu virus, and it is designed to spread from host to host and has the ability to replicate itself. 
  • In more technical terms, a computer virus is a type of malicious code or program written to alter the way a computer operates and just disable your device without your knowledge.
  • Free software which contains some ads may be annoying but it is not illegal however if a third-party program adds malicious ad software onto your device, without your consent then it's illegal.
  • Spyware - Spyware is a type of malware that is installed on a computer without your nums.

3. Man in the Middle

Now let's say you are working in your company and your manager asks you to send your password, you send him through your email but what if there's a hacker that is monitoring your conversation. When you send your email he interrupts it makes a copy of it and lets the mail go in the direction of your manager. 

4. Phishing 

Phishing scams are usually done through email, though they can also be done through social media platforms. In these email messages, the attacker requests personal or sensitive information which is then used for identity theft and other malicious activities.

Phishing emails often come from spoofed addresses that make it difficult to distinguish them from legitimate ones. However, some tell-tale signs signify a phishing scam: an unusual length or lack of detail in the message, grammatical and spelling errors, no company logo or other brand information, and links to third-party websites rather than the company site.

5. Password attacks

Password attacks are the most common form of corporate and personal data attacks, password attack is simply when a hacker tries to steal your password.

Types of Password Attacks 

  • Brute force attack - A brute force attack uses a trial and error method to guess login info, encryption keys, or find a hidden web page. These attacks are done by brute force meaning they use excessive forceful attempts to try and force their way into the private accounts.
  • Dictionary attack - It's a password guessing technique in which the attacker attempts to determine a user's password by successfully trying words from a dictionary, that dictionary is compiled with a list of likely passwords that we put.
  • Key loggers - Key loggers are built from the act of keystroke logging, creating records of everything you type on a computer or mobile keyboard. These are used to quietly monitor your computer activity while you use your device as normal.
  • Credential stuffing - It's a method in which attackers use the list of compromised user credentials to breach into a system. 

6. SQL injection

SQL injection is a web security vulnerability in which the attacker interferes with the queries that an application makes to its database. The hacker can retrieve sensitive data from the company.

Here is an example for it - Let's say there's a website that contains a lot of username and passwords, now this data is stored in the database of websites that works on SQL queries. 

Now the hacker types a SQL query in the format that is shown the hacker got into the website using some other username password and then he can gain access to the website and then he can hack it and get all the data from the website.

7. Social engineering

Social engineering is the most common attack. Social engineering uses psychological manipulation to trick people into giving away sensitive information such as their card numbers, their OTP, then the hackers use that information to breach personal or organizational devices.

From day to day cybercriminals have learned that a carefully worded email voicemail or text message can convince people to transfer money, provide confidential information, or download a file that installs malware on the company network.

Why Hackers do Cybercrime?

1. Financial loss to the target - Suppose I do a DDoS attack and the company is no longer working they will suffer a huge financial loss.

2. Demanding RansomHackers can encrypt your data and then demand money to decrypt it.

3. Damaging reputation of the targetImpersonating the user on social media platforms making false statements thus damaging the reputation of the person.

4. Information theft and manipulating data - Suppose I get data that has a lot of value in the dark web or dark market. I can sell it and earn from it.

5. Creating chaos by disrupting critical infrastructureFor example, a company's infrastructure crashes, and the hacker crashes it. The services are no longer to be offered by companies people start panicking about an attack by cybercriminals and they might never do any services in that company.

6. Achieving state military objectivesNow that's interesting one country spying on another country to gain information about their military intelligence and activities so that they can have the upper hand in that country.

7. Propagating religious or political beliefsNow hackers promote whatever culture they want to promote or whatever party they want to promote, getting more and more followers and thus achieving their motives.

8. Disrupting business continuityIf a person doesn't want any organization to work, he can hack into it to stop the business.

How to Prevent your computer or phone from Cyber Attacks?

Turn on Two-way authentication

Now in two-factor authentication, it's an extra layer of security used to ensure that the user trying to gain access to an online account is authentic.

For example, Google's two-step verification service involves the usual password that the user knows or you know. A code that is sent to your device is called two-factor authentication or two-way authentication.

Secure passwords

Hackers are really hungry for passwords as they have a lot of value in the dark market or dark web. That's the main reason companies ask you to create a strong password so that no one can hack into it.

Tips to make your password secure 

  • Do not use personal information - It's strongly recommended that you don't include any words related to your name or the names of your family members or pets in your passwords.
  • Do not use real words - Password tracking tools are very effective at helping hackers guess, your password use mixed characters by combining uppercase letters with lowercase letters, numbers, and special characters.
  • Change passwords regularly - Online financial accounts should be changed every month or two, while you may change your passwords every quarter.
  • Don't write them down - Resist the temptation to hide passwords under your keyboard or post them on your monitor, stories about hackers getting passwords by dumpster diving and shoulder surfing are absolutely real.

Regular update 

Always update your Computer, Android phone, iPhone, iPad, Android Tablets, etc. As soon as an update comes.

An update comes when there is a security issue and has been resolved, software updates are important because they often include critical patches to security holes. 

In addition to security fixes, software updates can also include new or enhanced features or better compatibility with different devices or applications. And they can also improve the stability of your software and remove outdated features.

Antivirus for PCs

Well, that's very self-explanatory always use antivirus on your computer, it helps to detect any virus in the file that you download or get externally. Always keep your firewalls enable, a firewall is a network security device it helps in filtering or blocking incoming and outgoing network traffic based on the organization's policies.

Most of us have a habit of not checking whether the firewall in our computer is enabled or disabled. One of the worst things that could happen to your computer is if someone attempts to take control remotely you don't want a remote intruder to get into your digital kingdom. 

Right now, Windows and macOS already come with an inbuilt antivirus such as Windows Defender and Xprotect.

Antivirus for phones 

Antivirus doesn't make any sense because Android and iOS are becoming very strict about their privacy, and you don't have to worry about that.


Now phishing is the most common way to get credentials from any user, and that's the trend that's going on right now. It's very important to have awareness about this attack to protect yourself and your organization.

Tips to protect your pc from getting Hacked 

Be cautious about all communications you receive, if it appears to be phishing communication do not respond just delete.

Do not click on any links listed in the email message or do not open any attachments contained in a suspicious email.

Do not enter personal information in a pop-up screen legitimate companies agencies and organizations do not ask for personal information via pop-up screens.

Tips to Protect Your Phone from getting Hacked

Always back up your data on an external device or in the cloud so you have it if something happens to your phone.

Only install apps from sources you trust like Google Play Store or Apple App Store. And check for any permissions they request before allowing them access to your data or location information.

Be cautious about giving out personal information to people online and do not click on links sent by suspicious emails or texts.

Also If You want to know more about How to secure your android phone from hackers? then Make sure to check out my new post on

 How to secure android phones from hackers? Ways to protect phones from hacking

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